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Nov 30th, 2001, 11:58 AM #1----
A portrait of a patriot
Did Vinayak Damodar Savarkar have a hand in Mahatma Gandhi's assassination?
If not, why was he chargesheeted along with Nathuram Godse and the others?
Did he play an active role in instigating/encouraging the Hindu-Muslim riots that hit India and Pakistan post-Partition?
Don't expect writer-director Ved Rahi's Veer Savarkar to answer these and other such questions. The film conveniently, one might say, ends with India's Independence, leaving these uncomfortable questions out of the script.
Presented by the Savarkar Darshan Pratishthan and financed 'by the people' (as the publicity brochures say) Veer Savarkar has been in the making for long. The end product, thankfully, does not show much time lag.
The film starts with Savarkar (Shailendra Gaur) moving to England to become a barrister and, in the process of earning his degree, to create unrest against the British Empire on its home soil. He is encouraged by his family (his wife, elder brother Ganesh and his wife), Madam Cama and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, among others.
In London, he enlists support for his revolutionary activities and begins translating into Marathi the biography of Giuseppe Mazzini, the Italian revolutionary who inspires him deeply.
He also befriends Madanlal Dhingra (Pankaj Berry) and a few others who begin to share his vision.
However, Sir William Curzon Wyllie is aware of Savarkar's anti-British writings in India and keeps tracks of his activities from day one. Savarkar's books The History of 1857 War of Independence and Mazzini are soon banned by the British.
Dhingra shoots Sir Wyllie at the India House and is arrested. Savarkar supports Dhingra's action openly. Soon, Savarkar is arrested and his case is transferred to India. On his trip to India, Savarkar tries to escape by jumping into the sea and swimming to south coast of France. He is re-arrested and brought to India and is sentenced to 50 years' imprisonment at the Andaman jail.
Here, he is confined to a solitary prison room for the first six months and made to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil each day later. When he speaks against the prevailing inhuman conditions in the jail, he is sentenced to seven days of standing handcuffs. Refusal to work till a prison mate is given medical treatment invites 10 days of crossbar fetters. He soon undertakes a hunger strike to protest against harsh treatment being meted out to a young inmate.
Savarkar is conditionally transferred to the Ratnagiri jail after 16 years -- he has to accept house arrest and not participate in any political activity. Eleven years later, his remaining sentence is written off.
The film very touchingly brings to life the inhuman, cruel punishments meted out to political prisoners in the Andaman jails and the brave resisitance put up by the freedom fighters.
It succeeds in establishing the fact that the freedom movement had many more heroes than what we usually get to read or hear about. And presents us with one such character in Savarkar.
The film fails to convince the viewer why Savarkar suddenly changes from a revolutionary willing to sacrifice his life for the nation (till way past the interval), to one talking of a Hindu Rashtra opposed to Muslims (towards the film's end).
A short scene depicts three Muslim freedom fighters being brought to jail as part of the Khilafat movement. Here, they tell Savarkar openly that they oppose the British because it has invaded Islamic Turkey. The viewer is expected to believe that all Muslims who lay down their lives during the Independence struggle did so for the same reasons -- for Turkey and Islam, not for India!
Similarly, the scene showing Savarkar's meeting with Mahatma Gandhi, the latter is shown as unwilling to enter into a detailed debate over non-violence with Savarkar. Here, the actor playing Gandhi avoids Savarkar's forceful gaze, sits uncomfortably and leaves in a relieved hush with no real attempt to justify his views. Imagine a person so scared of expressing his views being able to lead a national struggle against the mighty British!
Ditto the scene where Savarkar meets Subhash Chandra Bose.
Instead of bluntly showing Savarkar as a pro-Hindu, pro-Hindu Rashtra visionary, it attempts to hide his views and militant anti-Muslim role. And these very attempts fail the film.
Shailendra Gaur has given the title role his all. He portrays pain, suffering and revolutionary zeal with conviction.
Navni Parihar as his wife has pretty little to do. Ditto Mrinal Kulkarni as his brother's wife. Tom Alter as the cruel jailor at the Andaman jails is good. Bob Christo as Sir Willie has nothing new to offer, except his usual grimaces and Anglicized accent. Pankaj Berry overacts.
The film has only one song sung by musician Sudhir Phadke himself.
Overall, the film will find favour only among Savarkar's followers. It will surely be used by Sangh Parivar outfits to showcase their very own freedom fighter and propagate his unfinished dream of a Hindu Rashtra.
Nov 30th, 2001, 12:01 PM #2----
Can u move it to Shor Sharaba section.
Nov 30th, 2001, 07:12 PM #3----
Here's another review .........
A stunning classic
Innumerable patriots sacrificed their entire lives by defiantly fighting alien powers who had mauled and chained our motherland with fetters of abject slavery; these aliens had become the arbiters of our destiny, literally plundered our wealth, our glory and transported them, beyond the seven seas. Systematic efforts were made to erase the memory of these patriots from the pages of history and condemn them to oblivion. However, today’s budding and young generation of our country has started re-discovering the history, reflecting the true facts of our struggle for Independence — facts which were intentionally consigned to obscurity by vested interests. The latent and unbiased force of Time-Lapse has ultimately discovered the contribution of these noble souls, which has for sure, now started seeing the light of the day. One such golden saga in our glorious history, is led by Savarkar.
This feature film incorporates the touching events in the life of Savarkar — a great revolutionary, a political prophet and a born poet. The film depicts with utmost regard for truth, various important events in his chequered life, like his detention on arrival at Victoria Terminus Station in London, his heroic attempt at freeing himself from British bondage by jumping out of the ship at Marseilles, his re-arrest on the south coast of France, his trial and conviction by Bombay High Court who sentenced him to serve 50 year’s imprisonment, his incarceration and languishing in horrid torture for 11 long years in Andaman Jail, his authoring the book titled ‘Hindutva’ while in Ratnagiri Jail, his movement for throwing open the doors of Vithal Temple in Ratnagiri to untouchables, his historic meetings with Gandhiji and Subhash Chandra Bose, his attempt for revival of Hindusabha etc.
The man behind the saga on celluloid— Sudhir Phadke
Presenter and Music Director
Who can forget the famous song, ‘Jyoti Kalash Chhalke’ from Bhabhi Ki Choodiyan in the voice of Lata Mangeshkar of the sixties. The song was composed by Shri Sudhir Vinayak Phadke, popularly known as Babuji, the doyen of Marathi light music in India. Born on July 15, 1919 at Kolhapur, Shri Phadke had his initial training in vocal classical music from the late Gayanacharya Sh. Vamanrao Padhye in Kolhapur.
Sh. Phadke has given music to about 110 films including Marathi and Hindi. He started with HMV in 1941 and joined Prabhat Film Company in 1946 as its music director. Several of his films have been golden and silver jubilees. In addition to composing music, Sh Sudhir Phadke has also been popular as a singer. His style of composing and singing light music and ‘‘Bhav Geet’’ has set a new trend.
A milestone of his career is the composition and rendering in his own voice, of ‘‘Geet Ramayana’’, which is based on Valmiki’s Ramayana and written by late Padmashree G.D. Madgulkar. ‘‘Geet Ramayana’’ has been translated into several languages and its recordings are still in huge demand. About 1800 concerts have been performed based on this in India and abroad.
Besides being a singer and music director, he has also produced films in Marathi. One of his films, Ha Maaza Marga Ekala had won Rashtrapati Award in 1963. In fact, awards and citations have become a habit with him. These include Sangeet Natak Akademy Award, V. Shantaram Puraskar, Godavari Gaurav Puraskar, Karveer Bhushan Award, Dinanath Mangeshkar Award, Manik Ratna Award, Zunjar Puraskar, Alpha Jeevan Gaurav Puraskar and recently Lata Mangeshkar Award from Maharashtra State Government.
Shri Phadke also took part in the armed struggle for liberation of Portuguese enclave of Dadra, Nagar Haveli in 1954 and has been recognised as freedom fighter by Government.
For the last 15 years, Shri Phadke has devoted himself in the making of ‘‘Veer Savarkar’’ and his dream has now been fulfilled.
This is the first film in India made with the money donated by public. Sudhir Phadke formed a trust called Savarkar Darshan Pratishthan (Trust) to generate money for the film for which Prabhakar Mone also worked very hard. The Board of Trustees of the Trust at present include, Sh. Sudhir Phadke (President), Sh. Prabhakar Kulkarni (Vice President), Sh. V.R. Marathe (Treasurer), Sh. P.R. Gune (Secretary) and Sh. M.K. Gokhale, Sh. Bhikuji Idate and Sh. Ramesh Wavikar, all members. l
The man who brings history alive on celluloid— VED RAHI
Shri Ved Rahi is a well known writer in the world of literature and cinema. A Sahitya Akademi Award winner, Shri Rahi has to his credit about 100 short stories in various languages including Hindi, Urdu and Dogri, his mother tongue. Born in 1933 in Jammu, Shri Rahi was the youngest editor of Yogna an Hindi monthly. He has also written couple of novels in Dogri and has translated Tagore’s 21 stories in Dogri. Some of his stories have been translated into foreign languages also.
Later he shifted to Bombay and joined Ramanand Sagar in direction department. Till date he has written dialogues, stories and screenplay for about 50 films. He had directed meaningful films, Darar (for which Sudhir Phadke gave the music) and Prem Parbat in seventies and later ventured into production with Kali Ghata. With onset of the television, he shifted to the small screen and made several famous programmes including Katha Sagar, Meera Bai, Gul Gulshan Gulfam and others.
Before starting shooting of ‘‘Veer Savarkar’’, he spent about two years in research work and went through all the works of not only of Veer Savarkar but of all his contemporaries including Mahatma Gandhi, Lokmanya Tilak and others so that the film is factually correct. Says he ‘‘it took me about three months to write one scene between Mahatma Gandhi and Veer Savarkar, when they met for the second and last time in Ratnagiri on March 1, 1927’’.
Shri Ved Rahi feels there is very little effort to understand the viewpoint and belief of Savarkar, whose thinking is more relevant today. In short, Savarkar was a misunderstood person. Thus, film Veer Savarkar is precisely an attempt to end that prejudice and to make people aware of such personalities. The film is an honest attempt to present unknown historical facts in true perspective. l
Planned more than 15 years ago and made during the past two years. Sudhir Phadke’s Hindi production of Veer Savarkar (19 reels) is at last ready to hit the Indian screens. Directed by Ved Rahi, it has Shailendra Gaur, a National School of Drama alumnus of Alkazi vintage, in the title role. In this very first film, Gaur has done a stupendous job on par with Ben Kingsley’s Gandhi, Paresh Rawal’s Sardar Patel and Mammooty’s Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. Gaur dominates this exciting biopic, leaves his stamp on it and dominates every frame he appears in.
In his eighties now, Sudhir Phadke has spent years in the film industry, both as playback singer and music director. His political conviction originate s in the ideology of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS); but even his closest admirers had not expected that he would come out with such an outstanding filmic tribute to the great Veer Savarkar. Rahi, a Kashmiri veteran of the Hindi film industry, has succeeded in directing a masterpiece .
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar was born in a small village called Bhagur in Nashik district on May 28, 1883. The film begins with his youth when both he and his elder brother Babarao (Rohitansh Gaur) had married and had been fired with the example of martyrs like Vasudev Balwant Phadke and the Chaphekar Brothers and intrepid patriots like Lokmanya Tilak. The one mantra they cherished in their hearts was of freedom from British rule with the aid of arms, if necessary. The two brothers carried on a lot of secretive insurrectionary activity till it was time for Vinayak to go to London for his bar-at-law degree. While he was there, Babarao was arrested and sent to the Andamans jail where Vinayak was destined to spend years in hard labour some time later.
If there is one word which can describe the film it is "authentic". Even an exterior such as Savarkar’s historic jump from a ship’s porthole in Marseilles harbour was not shot on location! But it is impossible in this film to call any location phoney or studio-made, while the fact remains that only a sequence on London’s Westminster Bridge between the young Savarkar and his mentor Shamji Krishna Varma (Sunil Shende) was actually shot on the spot during a three-day schedule. While studying to be a barrister, young Savarkar also got involved with a group of revolutionaries. They experienced typical humiliation at the hands of the British in London. Young Madanlal Dhingra (Pankaj Berry) dared to put a few bullets through the heart of a Blimp called Curzon Wylie (Bob Christo) and was consequently sent to the gallows. The headquarters of the students’ revolutionary group in London led by Savarkar was the India House hostel. (This is not to be confused with the India House which, after independence, house our High Commission in the U.K.).
Here the British sent Indian renegades to spy on Savarkar. Here Savarkar wrote his first book, a life of the Italian revolutionary, Joseph Maazini. It was here that pistols were loaded in what looked like a parcel of books and sent out to comrades in India. The Pune Turf Club and some studio constructions served as the exact look-alikes of locations in London such as India House, Caxton Hall (where the Aga Khan presided over a meeting condemning Dhingra’s assassination of Wylie only to be boldly questioned by Savarkar) and others. Even minor characters like Savarkar’s supporter David Garnett (the writer and son of Constance Garnett who translated Russian classics) are represented in the film, though necessarily marginally.
Director Rahi has obviously read every bit connected with Savarkar including the latter’s own works. Rahi’s dialogue is one of the strongest forces of the film, which is full of exciting words but never wordy. The key incident in the first part of the film is Savarkar’s escape through a ship’s porthole in Marseilles harbour. This was shot actually in the Bombay Port Trust’s waters with - as Chief Production Controller Prabhakar Mone tells us - a stand-in for Shailendra Gaur. This whole episode retains its suspense and dramatic thrill and emerges as a memorable point in the story.
The next phase of the film takes us to the horrible cellular jail in the Andamans. Long sequences have been shot here, and the whole revolting saga of prisoners suffering under a tyrnanical jailor called Baari-saheb (Tom Alter in his element) is unfolded. While art director Sharad Pole was responsible for the realism of the interiors, cameraman Sameer Athalye manages to bring the cellular jail sequences alive. On the merit of these sequences alone, the film will be called most memorably brilliant. Gaur, made up to look like the tried and tested prisoner who wins all his moral battles, gives here the performance of a lifetime.
The third and last phase of Veer Savarkar shows us how he spends his time after his sudden release from the Andaman Jail. For a while his movements are restricted to Ratnagiri. Here he takes up the cause of untouchables - the first step in emerging in the vanguard of Hinduism. The film patently succeeds in correcting the impression created by those who denigrate Savarkar as a Hindu fundamentalist. On the contrary, the sequence of "Mandir-pravesh" (entering the Vitthal temple with a band of untouchables) and those of the leader’s meetings with Gandhiji (Surendra Ranjan) and Subhas Chandra Bose (Keni Desai) - both look-alikes - put Savarkar’s real politics in perspective.
Gaur is Savarkar
Wisely, the film does not conclude with what happened to Savarkar after the assassination of the Mahatma. Because of his alleged association with the killer Nathuram Godse, Savarkar was also dragged into the legal proceedings. But he was exonerated and vindicated. It is good that the film does not enter these troubled waters although it does not shirk the controversial developments in Savarkar’s last years. All the same, the film shows us a series of meetings addressed by Savarkar and hammers his message home. Those like me who have not only met Savarkar in his Dadar residence but also heard him speak without a single technical pause are well qualified to applaud Shailendra Gaur’s oratory vigour while enacting these speeches.
The young man - made up brilliantly for all ages and all occasions - not just lives the role; he is Savarkar. This is the finest character acting seen in a Hindi film since Mammooty essayed Dr. Ambedkar in Dr. Jabbar Patel’s biopic. It is now to be seen whether success spoil the inimitable talent of Gaur or he scales still steeper heights. Meanwhile, Veer Savarkar must be made compulsory viewing among the youth of this country. Its female roles (effortlessly portrayed by Navni Parihar, Mrinal Kulkarni and Supriya Karnik) are minor while there is only one song based on Savarkar’s famous poem written on the shores of Brighton Beach sung by Phadke himself.
Veer Savarkar is the film of the year. It has no faults. It is a dedicated recreation of the great man’s life.
Dec 1st, 2001, 08:46 AM #4----
did they do a good job? i hope so. in general, we are pathetic at recreating heros. if atenborough did not make 'gandhi', i doubt any indian film-maker would have been able to create the drama of period without becoming melodramatic. i heard jabbar patel did a good job with ambedkar. is anyone trying netaji bose?
Dec 1st, 2001, 08:52 AM #5----
Movie Review: Veer Savarkar
by Anil Saari Arora
Veer Savarkar, 1883-1966, has been one of the most charismatic heroes of the Indian Right. For his admirers he was the greater man compared to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The greater social reformer too, despite the fact that on the political scene of India, post-1948, Savarkar could never hold center stage.
Nevertheless, he has remained a highly revered Hindutva hero, considered to be one of the founding fathers of the religious-political ideology whose leadership is now with the RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) and the BJP. Savarkar's own organization, the Hindu Mahasabha, of which he first became the president in 1937, receded into the political backwaters after his death.
Savarkar had refused an invitation to join the Congress Party as far back as the nineteen- thirties; becoming instead one of its most trenchant and persistent critics, specially on the issue of the sub-continent's partition, the Congress Party's attitude of 'appeasement' to the country's Muslim minority, and of its 'neglect' of the Hindu majority's interests.
Consequently, during the five decades of Congress raj over Indian politics, little was heard of Savarkar outside his own constituency, except that he was a firebrand revolutionary who had suffered extremely brutal punishments while incarcerated in the cellular jail at Andaman and Nicobar, from 1910 to 1921.
Savarkar was, of course, not the only revolutionary fighting against the British Raj who was publicly marginalised - according to admirers, not given due recognition on the national scene - during the five decades of Congress Party hegemony.
Subhash Chandra Bose is perhaps even more prominently mentioned in this regard. Similar accusations were made till very recent times regarding Bhagat Singh. Chandrashekhar Azad, worshipped as devoutly in the smaller geographical region of Allahabad-Kanpur as Savarkar is among his followers, has been similarly neglected. Not to mention the innumerable revolutionaries from Bengal, many of them Leftists, whose name remains but a footnote in the history known to the intelligentsia outside the state.
Indeed, there is a school of thought among some, should we say non-conformist, Indian historians who are extremely dissatisfied with the mainstream framework constructed as a façade for the history of India's freedom movement. They believe that it eschews not only the major non-mainstream heroes of the struggle for independence but also the contribution of the little people in innumerable small towns and regional capitals.
Unfortunately, as far back as one can remember, the sub-continent's rulers (and the intellectuals they patronize) do not take kindly to the validity of the uncomfortable facts of history. It is a malady to be found to this day in the leadership of all our political parties. The independent historian seems to have no place of relevance in the sub-continent's intellectual establishment.
Indeed, it is thanks to the flux of political instability in India since 1975 that many aspects and personalities of the freedom movement, whose memory had been swept under the carpet, are now being gradually resurrected on the national scene.
Indian cinema seems to be making an important contribution in this regard, in particular. Perhaps we are finally coming to terms with the less comfortable realities of 20th century Indian politics. The lid has been taken off the Pandora Box of modern Indian history. There have been a handful of films on the partition in recent years, as well as bio-pics on personalities hitherto ignored by the mainstream media.
Now, this 30th November, a three-hour long feature film on Veer Savarkar is to be released at several metropolises and regional capitals in India. It has taken its producer, Sudhir Phadke, nearly 15 years to complete the project, but not because the funds were not there.
As the film's writer-director, Ved Rahi, puts it, it was not a subject one could script or film easily. Perhaps because of the extreme allegiances and antagonisms that enwrap the complex persona of Veer Savarkar. It took Rahi himself seven years of involvement with the project to finally see it through this November.
Ved Rahi's film on Veer Savarkar is best defined as a political biography that focuses on the gist of Savarkar's most active and effective period as a revolutionary activist and thinker.
As a bio-pic, the film starts slowly in terms of dramatization. It confines itself to simply recording, as it were, the sequence of events that finally led to Savarkar's arrest and incarceration in 1910.
What comes through in this first section of the film is that Savarkar was a fiery revolutionary who had the ability to inspire other young men to stake their life for the cause of freedom. Also that he was an extremely versatile talent. A believer in the armed struggle for independence, he was also a poet, an effective pamphleteer and an inspiring ideologue.
Friends in Maharashtra who have been lifelong admirers of Veer Savarkar tell me that there is no doubting the authenticity of the film's content, on either side of the mandatory interval. However, the first half of the film could have been more dramatically filmed, I believe, so that it could have served as a better, more dramatic, film introduction to the charisma of Veer Savarkar to those unfamiliar with his personality. Probably the one moment in this part of the film which conforms to popular requirements of the cinema is the sequence on Savarkar's famous attempt to escape from a ship, off the French coast, in which he was being brought from London to stand trial in India.
However, shortly after, Savarkar (played by newcomer Shailendra Gaur) is sent to the cellular jail at Port Blair, in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, far out in the Bay of Bengal, and is subjected to the exacting and torturous impositions of the Irish jailer Barrie (played by Tom Alter), the film's tempo picks up dramatically.
As a film producer friend remarked, Veer Savarkar was subjected to perhaps the most cruel of physical punishments during India's freedom struggle.The scenes shot on the actual location of the cramped cells in which Savarkar was subjected to varied punishments by the jailer Barrie, are quite nerve-wracking to imagine. Then, the prolonged cycle of being yoked to the huge grindstones of an oil mill, otherwise pulled by animals in the sub-continent, finally establishes the charisma of Savarkar that is intended by the filmmakers.
Through this section of the film one has to admire Savarkar's indomitable spirit and his ability to lead fellow men in the most adverse circumstances. At this point one is also introduced to his belief that the Hindu nation should be shaped not just in against British colonialism but also in the context of the Hindu struggles against Muslim sultanates and empires.
The second half of the film takes off from this point. Savarkar was released in 1921 from the cellular jail. His sentence of 50 years reduced to 11 because of his failing health and the physical abuse showered upon him by his jailer. His sentence was converted into one that initially confined him to the jails at Ratnagiri and Yerawad; then released but interned at Ratnagiri up to June 1937.
The young actor Shailendra Gaur and director Ved Rahi portray the older, physically shrunken, person of Savarkar with great deftness. The striking portrait they sketch out fits in perfectly with the intense drama of political activity in which Savarkar involved himself after 1937.
One of Savarkar's earliest political movements after his release in 1937 was to persuade upper caste Hindus to allow Mahar shudras into the local mandir. It was an attempt that was rather brusquely thwarted and Savarkar decided to establish his own Patit Pawan mandir. He realized that the caste system was pushing the so-called shudra Hindus to convert to Islam and he was bent upon re-converting these peoples back to the Hindu fold.
Three political meetings Savarkar had in the pre-independence era stand out as the moments of high drama in the film.
Firstly, the Savarkar-Gandhi confrontation when Gandhi visited him at Ratnagiri in 1927. What the film shows is the crux of their ideological difference. Savarkar insisting that a person should think of himself first as an Indian and then as a member of a caste; and Gandhi saying that he believed that one was first the member of a caste and then an Indian.
Secondly, Savarkar's meeting with Hedgewar, the founder of the RSS, suggests that Savarkar was to greatly influence the RSS's views on Hindutva ideology and on making a concerted effort to re-convert those who had left the Hindu fold for other religious affiliations.
The meeting with Subhash Chandra Bose is even more suggestive. According to writer-director Ved Rahi's screenplay, it was Savarkar who first suggested to Netaji that Indians should be encouraged, during the second world war, to join the British Indian Army. So that they could acquire military skills which, in time to come, may be turned around and used against the British colonialists.
These dramatic moments in the film are finally climaxed by an evocation of Savarkar's development of his ideology of 'Hindu nationalism'. Ved Rahi's is essentially a portrait of the political Savarkar, and he probably felt that there was no reason to follow the cliched biographical routine of tracing the man's life up to the moment of his passing away. For this is a production dedicated to Veer Savarkar by those who admire him deeply; presented by the Savarkar Darshan Pratishthan.
Critically, however, I for one was disappointed that Ved Rahi's film does not touch upon the social and political history that led to the emergence of Veer Savarkar's charismatic Hindutva personality.
The roots of his political persona go back a few hundred years - to the Maharashtrian struggle against the Mughal empire, Aurangzeb onwards. Thereafter, to the emergence of the Maratha Confederacy and the Peshwai empire. And finally to the almost caste-like division during India's freedom movement - between the Marathas who joined the Congress Party and the Maharashtrian Brahmins who were affiliated to the Hindu Mahasabha and the RSS.
Savarkar's efforts to end casteist untouchabilities seem so obviously to be descended from Maharashtra's great tradition epitomised by the devotional poets, such as the sants Namdeo, Dyaneswar and Tukaran. This, too, I personally feel, could have been touched upon.
Certainly, I for one find it incomprehensible that the very communities devoted to the political beliefs of Veer Savarkar should so obdurately oppose their ideologue's views on caste and untouchability. Much like the Gandhites who have tried to make everyone forget that Gandhi's first principle was to speak the truth!
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