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May 14th, 1999 #1----
Urdu qadardaanoN ko to eh maaloom hoga keh har ghazal mein 5 cheezon ka hona zaroori hota hai ghazal kehlaane keliye: maqta, matla, bahr, kaafiya aur radeef.
Mera sawaal yeh hai ke aap mein se baraae-meherbaani aik qat'an jawaab dede ke in mein radeef kawnsa hissa hai, aur qaafiya kawnsa kyonke main ne mukhtalif logon se mukhtaalif definitions sunne hain..aur ab bilkal hi pareshaan hoon!
Chupke chupke raat din aansoo bahaana yaad hai
Hum ko ab tak aashiqui ka woh zamaana yaad hai
Iss shair mein, 'yaad hai' qaafiya hai ya radeef hai?
May 14th, 1999 #2----
Radeef is the word/phrase that is repeated at the end of the second line in every shair. In your example, it'd be "yaad hai."
Both lines of the very first sher (matla), usually end in the same radeef.
Qaafia is the pattern of word(s) that rhyme and come just before the radeef in the second line of a sher. i.e. zamaanaa, dabaanaa, lagaanaa
chupkay chupkay raat din aansu bahaana yaad hai
ham ko ab tak aashqi ka wo zamaanaa yaad hai
baahzaaraan iztiraab-o-sadhzaaraan ishtiyaaq
tujhsay wo pahlay pahal dil kaa lagaanaa yaad hai
tujhsay miltay hi wo baybaak ho jaanaa meraa
aur teraa daanton main wo ungli dabaanaa yaad hai
Hope this helps.
May 14th, 1999 #3----
Thanks Shaira ji
But some books/people I thnik use the words qaafiya/radeef interchangeably or use qaafiya when they mean radeef and vice-versa.
eg on a tape of Ghulam Ali's [Ghulam Ali--Meri Pasand vol. 1 EMI], when he sings the ghazal 'yeh dil paagal dil mera, is ko kya huwa, awaargi' woh kehta hai ke 'iss ghazal ka QAAFIYA hai 'awaargi'???????
Ab kawn correct hai?
Nov 20th, 1999 #4
See both of U I want to make it clear for everyone and make ur concept clear about Radeef and Qafiyah
Ghulam Ali is right in saying that aawaargee is the Qafiyah cuz For example in the first ghazal
Chupkay chupkay raat din aansoo bahana yaad hai
hum ko ab tuk aashiquee ka woh zamanah yaad hai
yaad hai is the repeating word and is Qafiyah while the repeating tone bahana zamanah is Radeef
In the second Ghazal aawaargee
maira dil yeh pagal dil maira kuon bujh gaya aawaargee
is dasht main ik shehr tha woh kya hua aawaargee
AAwaargee is the repeating word and thus is Qafiyah and the repeating word gaya hua likha are the Radef
moreover I am amazed no one pointed it out?
Nov 20th, 1999 #5----
Isfand,....Hayaa is right
Qaafia comes just before the radeef....
therefore, Bahana, zamana bla bla r Qafia....
Aur HaaN Asif,...Ghulaam Ali is just a singer....No "UrduMaster"...
If u check the "Lughat"...the defination for "Qafia" will be some thing like this..."Ilm-e Arooz meiN Radeef Se Pehlay Ka Lafz"......
[This message has been edited by NaikLarki (edited November 20, 1999).]
Nov 21st, 1999 #6
(This definition is based on a defintion of Gazal by Dr. Arshad Jamal from the book Aaina-e-Gazal)
Gazal is a collection of 'sher' which follow the rules of 'matla', 'maqta', 'behar', 'qafiya' and 'radeef'. So to know what a Gazal is, it's necessary to know what these terms mean.
Sher (shey-r) - a two line poem. This is a deceptive definition as it does not convey the complexity of thought that can be conveyed in two lines. Each is a "complete" poem in itself. It stands by itself and can be quoted as such, and often is.
Thus, a Gazal is a collection of 'ashaar' (plural of sher) which are complete in themselves and each may deal with topics/ subjects completely unrelated to each other.
Behar (be-huhr) - behar is the metre of the poem. This can loosely thought of as the length of the sher. Both the lines of a sher MUST be of the same 'behar' or 'metre'. Also, all the ashaar of a Gazal MUST be the same behar.
There are 19 different metres that are used. In simple terms, they are divided into three categories - short, medium and long.
Radeef (ra-dee-f) - word or phrase that is repeated at the end of the second line in EVERY sher. The SAME word(s) are repeated.
Qafiya (qaa-fee-yaa) - the rhyming pattern of the word(s) just before the radeef in the second line of a sher. This is a necessary requirment, followed even in the absence of other rules.
Thus, a Gazal is a collection of two-lined poem called sher, having the same behar, ending with the same radeef and having the same qafiya.
Matla (muh-ta-laa) - This is the first sher of a Gazal, and both lines of the sher must end in the radeef. Usually a Gazal has only one matla. If a Gazal has more than one matla, then the second matla is called 'matla-e-saani'.
Maqta (mak-taa) - A shaayar (poet) usually had a pen-name under which he wrote. The pen-name is called 'taKhallus' (takh-ul-lus). The sher in which the taKhallus is included is called the maqta. It is the last sher of the Gazal.
umeed ha yeh tafseelat kaffi hoon gi........
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